An idea I came across a while ago (quite possibly through Dresden Codak, or Asimov) which essentially deals with Artificial Intelligence - the usual concept is that by definition if we ever create an A.I. which is intellectually superior to us it will also be able to improve on itself, leading to increasing levels of intelligence in an explosion, quickly leading to a singularity, the meaning of which is mysterious.

The term often refers in use to an era we're flirting with in which technological progress "takes off", overcoming in some way the limitations our intellects/capabilities have imposed on it.

Books dealing with it:

Ray Kurzweil, The Singularity is Near

Much of Isaac Asimov's work, The Last Question particularly.

And more.